May 01, 2018· Stalagmites form where the supersaturated water droplets hit the floor of the cave. These drops hit at the same point and splatter over an area that can be as large as several yards. The shock of the impact start the crystallization process and build a mound of limestone the rises and grows in .
Caves are formed by the dissolution of limestone. Rainwater picks up carbon dioxide from the air and as it percolates through the soil, which turns into a weak acid. This slowly dissolves out the limestone along the joints, bedding planes and fractures, some of which become enlarged enough to form caves.